match Examples (case)
This page was last reviewed on Dec 15, 2023.
Dot Net Perls
Match. In languages like Scala 3.3 we often need to handle special cases based on the values in our data. Pattern matching is a solution—and Scala supports pattern matching.
With the match keyword, we begin a match construct. We use cases to indicate values to be matched. We can return values directly from cases.
An example. Here we implement a function called colorCode. It accepts an id Int and returns a String. A match construct determines which string to return based on the Int.
Info We use the case-keyword to specify cases to return. Here we use simple cases for single Ints, but more complex forms may be used.
// Use match on parameter id and return a String. // ... Default case returns "None" String. def colorCode(id: Int): String = id match { case 0 => "Blue" case 1 => "Red" case 2 => "Green" case _ => "None" } object Program { def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = { // Get color code for this argument. val result = colorCode(0) println(result) val result2 = colorCode(1) println(result2) val result3 = colorCode(4000) println(result3) } }
Blue Red None
List pattern matching. To use pattern matching, we provide special syntax forms. For example, to match lists we specify 3 identifiers separated by "::" tokens.
Here The testList function matches lists with 2 or more elements, and returns true if the second element is greater than the first.
Tip The identifiers in the list pattern do not matter, but only the first two are elements we can compare.
Note The third identifier is the remainder of the list. So here "a" is element 1, "b" is element 2 and "c" is all remaining elements.
// Return true if list has two or more elements. // Second element must be greater than the first. // ... Return false for all other lists. def testList(x: List[Int]): Boolean = x match { case a :: b :: c => b > a case _ => false } object Program { def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = { // Call testList. val result1 = testList(List(10, 20, 30)) val result2 = testList(List(20, 10)) val result3 = testList(List()) val result4 = testList(List(1, 0, 2, 3)) val result5 = testList(List(0, 1, 2, 3)) println(result1) println(result2) println(result3) println(result4) println(result5) } }
true false false false true
Options. An option can be evaluated in match statement. An option is either Some value or is None. We can use Some and None in a match construct.
Here GetOption returns an Option that wraps an Int. If we pass 1 or greater, we get Some value. Otherwise we get None.
Result We pass 2 to getOption which returns a valid option. The Some case in the match block is reached. A value exists.
// Return Some or None option based on integer. def getOption(n: Int): Option[Int] = if (n >= 1) Some(n) else None object Program { def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = { // Get an option. val result = getOption(2) // Match option on Some and None. result match { case Some(x) => println("Value exists") case None => println("Nothing exists") } } }
Value exists
If inside match case. We can capture variables in cases and use if-statements to test those variables values. These are guarded, conditional cases.
Here Our match tests the "magnitude" value. It handles the case of greater than or equal to 4, and the case of less than or equal to 1.
Info This match construct returns a string. Its result is stored in the "result" value and then printed to the screen.
object Program { def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = { val magnitude = 5 // Match on magnitude, returning a string. // ... Handle greater than or equal to 4. // Handle less than or equal to 1. val result = magnitude match { case m if m >= 4 => "Big, greater than or equal to 4" case m if m <= 1 => "Small, less than or equal to 1" case _ => "Medium" } // Print result. println(result) } }
Big, greater than or equal to 4
List pattern notes. Let us research list pattern matching. We find that the pattern to match lists has three parts separated by "::" symbols.
The pattern x :: y :: xs matches lists of length >= 2, binding x to the list's first element, y to the list's second element, and xs to the remainder.
Tuples. A tuple can be matched. The syntax is similar to a list pattern. We can require specific values in any part of the tuple being matched.
A review. Pattern matching is similar to a "switch" statement in C-like languages. But in Scala we can use more advanced patterns. This simplifies code and makes it clearer.
Dot Net Perls is a collection of tested code examples. Pages are continually updated to stay current, with code correctness a top priority.
Sam Allen is passionate about computer languages. In the past, his work has been recommended by Apple and Microsoft and he has studied computers at a selective university in the United States.
This page was last updated on Dec 15, 2023 (edit).
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