let Keyword (let mutable)Understand the let, let mutable and lightweight syntax. See functions, variables and temporary variables.
This page was last reviewed on Mar 1, 2023.
Let. We declare values and functions in F# with let. Y equals 100. We introduce a binding to the value 100 to the identifier Y. We cannot change the meaning of Y later.
With the mutable keyword, we create mutable values (variables). These can be changed as a program executes. With let (part of the lightweight syntax) we also declare functions.
Mutable example. This first example uses the "mutable" keyword on a variable. We bind the identifier "number" to the value 100 and then reassign "number" to 200.
Important Mutable indicates assignment. In a declaration, we use the equals sign, but we cannot declare the same thing twice.
// Create a mutable variable. let mutable number = 100 printfn "%d" number // Reassign the variable to another value. number <- 200 printfn "%d" number
100 200
Not mutable error. This problem is encountered by many new F# developers. We try to assign a value that is not mutable. We can fix this by adding a mutable keyword to "color."
However Using two values is a better option (at least on simple things) than a variable that has a change in meaning.
let color = "green" printfn "%s" color // This causes an error. color <- "blue" printfn "%s" color
error FS0027: This value is not mutable
Separate values. Consider this program. We do not reassign any variable. Instead we just use two separate let-values. The meaning of this program is easy to understand.
And Time does not need to be considered to know the values color1 and color2: they never change. The program is easy to reason about.
// Use two identifiers for the values. let color1 = "magenta" printfn "%s" color1 let color2 = "crimson" printfn "%s" color2
magenta crimson
Lightweight function. The F# language uses a lightweight syntax. This considers indentation. It requires the "let" keyword for function declarations.
Here The function "greeting" is declared. It receives one string parameter, and returns a string (a type inferred by the compiler).
Detail To specify a lambda expression, we must use the "fun" keyword instead of the let-keyword.
// Use let keyword to create a function that receives a string. // ... It returns another string. let greeting (name : string) = "Hi " + name.ToUpper() + "," // Call the function and print its result. printfn "%s" (greeting "visitor") printfn "How are you?"
Hi VISITOR, How are you?
Temporary values. Sometimes a function is long and complex. Having temporary (intermediate) values makes it easier to reason about. We can use let-values inside a "let" function.
Here This function concatenates some strings. We use value1 and value2 inside of it to make it easier to read.
let combineStrings left right = // Create a temporary string based on the first argument. let value1 = "[" + left + "]" // Based on the second argument. let value2 = "{" + right + "}" // Return another string. // ... This is not optimally fast. value1 + "..." + value2 // Call the function with two string arguments. let result = combineStrings "cat" "dog" printfn "%s" result
Block comments. Sometimes a let statement spans multiple lines. This is not easy to comment out with single-line comments. But with a block comment we can temporarily erase it.
(* let modify x = List.map (fun y -> y * 2) x |> List.sum *)
Lightweight syntax. Indentation is important in F#. We must line up statements in the correct position when using lightweight syntax.
A review. Special features like inferred types make F# fast to write and easy to understand. With "let" we solve many problems: we specify values, variables and functions.
Dot Net Perls is a collection of tested code examples. Pages are continually updated to stay current, with code correctness a top priority.
Sam Allen is passionate about computer languages. In the past, his work has been recommended by Apple and Microsoft and he has studied computers at a selective university in the United States.
This page was last updated on Mar 1, 2023 (edit).
© 2007-2024 Sam Allen.